Dutch ships visited Camocim in the beginning of the 17th century when the French maintained relations with the indigenous people living in the Serra de Ibiapaba (Hulsman 2008: 4). The Portuguese erected a small fortification during the campaign against the French in Maranhão. The Dutch drive in 1637 also expelled the Portuguese from Camocim and Barretto claims that a small Dutch fortification was in place during the period 1637-1644 (Barretto 2010: 56-57). Further archival research in Dutch archives is necessary to confirm this, though there are references in Dutch archives to a Dutch fortification in Camocim after 1649 (Wiesebron 2008: 522). There is no indication of the location of this object and there are no details on its construction or garrison.