The first Dutch fort near Sumenep, which mainly supplied agricultural products to the VOC, was built in 1705 and stood near the mouth of the river. It had both a civil and military function and was under command of a merchant or a non-commissioned officer. But in 1780, a military commandant was appointed to be in charge of the fort. In 1783-1785 a fort was built in Kalimo’okok on a hill 200 meter north of river Marengan. The site of the fort was about three kilometer from the sea and seven kilometer from the city. The new fort was square with four bastions on the corners. There were two entrances: the main gate in the southern wall and a smaller gate in the northern wall. The walls were 1,3 meter thick and circa 4.1 A lieutenant was in command of the garrison of 25 till 30 European soldiers. The fort was armored with four cannon. During the British occupation of java and Madura in 1811 there was a fierce battle near Sumenep. Major William Thorn, who participated in the campaign wrote that the fort was much out of repair, on the wrong location and was used as a depot. Around 1847 the fort was in a good condition. Untill 1871 it was listed as a permanent fort of the 4th category against a native enemy. During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945) the fort was used as a hospital. Madura is an important supplier of salt and after the Indonesian independence the fort was used as a salt warehouse. Today it is used by the Farming Office as a quarantine for cattle.
- Abbas, Novida, Dutch forts on Java: a locational study (Singapore, 2001)
- Abbas, Novida, Rancang Bangun dan Peran Benteng Sumenep
- Pusat Dokumentasi Arsitektur, Inventory and identification of forts in Indonesia (Jakarta, 2010), 117