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Oranje, fort (Amazone)

Fort Orange was built at the confluence of the Rio Xingú with the Rio Amazon in order to protect the sugar mill named Materu. From this fort, the Dutch traded sugar and tobacco with the local population. It was probably founded in one of the earliest expeditions of the Zeelanders on the Amazon around 1600, but had been destroyed before the Dutch returned to the fort in 1615. Then, it was reconstructed with a gate. In 1623, the Portuguese attacked the fort and conquered it, finding 14 Dutchmen defending the fort and some Angolan and Indian slaves, tobacco, cotton and weapons.
The location of the fort is not exactly known, but the name Materu on the left side of VEL0684 likely indicates its location.

build start


build end



c. 1600-1616

historical name

Oranje, fort (Amazone)




function Fort
location Amazon


  • Hulsman, Lodewijk, Colonial fortifications in the States of Pará and Amapá: Historical research in the Netherlands
  • Souza, Marcos André Torres de, Historical Archaeology and Environment (2018), 65-86