Tiworo (also known as Pantsiano) was a polity around the eponymous Tiworo Strait, south of Southeast Sulawesi, with its capital on the north side of the island of Muna. It stood under control of Makassar and functioned as a refuge and staging area for Makasar fleets going to and from the Ambon Islands, to trade there or assist in the fight against the Dutch. In January 1655, during the Great Ambon War (1651-1656), a VOC fleet destroyed this capital.
- Bor, Livinus, Amboinse oorlogen, door Arnold de Vlaming van Oudshoorn als Superintendent, over d'Oosterse gewesten oorlogaftig ten eind gebracht (A. Bon, Delft, 1663)
- Gaynor, Jennifer, Intertidal History in Island Southeast Asia: Submerged Genealogy and the Legacy of Coastal Capture (Cornell University Press)
- Gaynor, Jennifer, Tiworo in the Seascape of the Spice Wars
- Gaynor, Jennifer, Southeast Asian Maritime Power, Seventeenth-Century Spice Wars, and Tiworo’s Neglected Fortifications