Martinique was charted by Columbus in 1493, but Spain had little interest in the territory. It became a french territory in the 1635, in spite of a revolt of the indigenous Carib population the following year. Many early settlers were Huguenots, seeking greater religious freedom overseas, and as a consequence, the French crown briefly deported Huguenots who refused to convert here in the years 1686-1688. In spite of the Crown's efforts, it remained strongly Huguenot.

Martinique changed hands between the British and French several times during the Seven Years' War and the Napoleonic Wars, but it was ultimately traded back to France and remains a French overseas territory to this day.