The island of Madura was conquered by Sultan Agung in 1624 and later in the seventeenth century was divided in three regencies: Bangkalan in the west, Pamekasan in the middle and Sumedang in the east. After the First Javanese War of Succession (1677-1707) Pamekasan and Sumedang placed themselves under VOC overlordship, so that the company inadvertently gained control of these regions. The rulers of three regencies, who had always supported the VOC against Mataram, were treated with great courtesy by the VOC Sumedang was a supplier of agricultural product to the VOC. The capital lied on the river Marengan which 10 kilometer to the south flow into Strait Madura. Only small craft could navigate on the river.
The first Dutch fort which was built in 1705 stood near the mouth of the river.